Authoring and rendering a scene can be a detailed and dynamic process. Building a scene often requires the creation and manipulation of data at multiple phases. We might create geometry at one point and then apply a modeling matrix to rotate or translate objects in the scene. Then, we could add lights as well as apply a variety of visual effects. Finally, we can define a camera that determines how the scene will be viewed. Once the scene is rendered to a display, we might find that we want a different result so we alter a series of attributes.
The actions described above are part of creating a scene. It is an iterative process that can involve tweaking any number of variables. To accurately change the elements in a scene so that you can get the result that you want, it is important to understand the coordinate systems associated with the different stages of the graphics pipeline.
In the figure above, we see that there are four different coordinate systems:
- Object space: an infinite 3D Cartesian coordinate system local to the object itself.
- World space: an infinite 3D Cartesian coordinate system where objects reside after their modelling transformations have been applied.
- Camera space: a space defined by a camera's view of world space.
- Pixel space: a coordinate system that represents the ultimate space that your scene is rendered to - sometimes referred to as screen space
When geometry is inserted into the graphics database, it initially inhabits an infinite 3D Cartesian coordination system called object space. Each segment has its own local object coordinate system. Objects are then transformed from object space into world space using the local modelling matrix contained in the segment concatenated with any transforms from the parent segment.
Visualize makes no distinction between 2D and 3D space - all geometry exists in the 3D space called world space, which is an infinite 3D Cartesian coordinate system. An object's position in world space is determined after modelling transformations are performed. In other words, an object's location in world space is calculated by concatenating all modelling matrices from an object's parent segment with the transformation information in its own segment and then applying it to the object.
World space is affected by world handedness. The world handedness determines which way the positive z direction points. In Visualize, the default handedness is "right". The most common effect of setting it backwards is camera movement is opposite of what you'd expect. To set the world handedness to "left", see the code snippet below:
This is the space viewed by cameras in the scene. A camera defines a particular view of world space. The camera space is calculated based on a set of attributes: position, target, field and type. In Visualize, you can set these values via SegmentKey::SetCamera passing the HPS::CameraKit. The vector derived from position and target values give us the Z-direction while the field helps define the extents of the observable world.
Once the camera attributes are taken into account, we can use this information to build a view frustum and calculate what part of the world space can be observed by the camera. Clipping is performed here in the camera space.
For a more detailed discussion about setting camera attributes and performing clipping, please see our page on cameras.
After an object has been transformed based on the viewing transform defined by a camera and then clipped, it is projected onto a 2D coordinate system called pixel space. This is also the coordinate system in which GUI events are typically returned. The dimensions of screen space are the same as the number of pixels in the window. Each unit corresponds to a pixel on the screen.
Although screen space is 2D, each pixel does remember the closest object to the camera. Thus, it retains a depth buffer value of the object's position along the z-axis.
As Visualize uses a number of different coordinate systems to compose a scene, you may find it necessary to translate coordinates from one coordinate system to another. The translation is handled by the WindowKey and computes each point individually.
The example above converts the point in window space at [-1, -1, 0] to a corresponding point in world coordinates (worldPoint is returned as the result). There are a number of coordinate systems available for translation:
|When geometry is inserted into Visualize, it is inserted into world space. This is the coordinate system in which the geometry is defined. Transforms such as rotation and scale affect the world space coordinate system itself, stretching and shrinking objects within it.|
|The object coordinate system is like world space, however, it is unaffected by transforms. It always remains immutable and static.|
|Normalized coordinates are in projection space (device coordinates) and map directly to the window.|
|The window coordinate system is defined as having a lower bound of -1 and an upper bound of 1 in both x and y directions. The origin is always at the center of the window. Regardless of the way the window stretches or shrinks, this coordinate system always stays the same. This is the coordinate system of the implicit subwindow.|
|A coordinate system based on the position of the camera. The origin is at the camera position. The viewing direction is the z axis and the camera up vector is the y axis.|
|The screen range coordinate system is only applicable within the context of a lightweight subwindow. If no subwindow is set, this is equivalent to the window coordinate system.|
|Identical to ScreenRange, except applies to standard subwindow instead of lightweight subwindow.|
|Pixel space is the space composed of the raw pixels of the window's client area. The origin of the window is always on the left, but different drivers may position the y coordinate at either the top or the bottom of the window.|
|InnerPixel space is similar to Pixel space, however, it only applies within the context of the pixels of a subwindow.|
Computing coordinates during selection events
A common computation that needs to be performed during a projected ray selection is to generate the world coordinates of an eye-ray. Given window or pixel coordinates, you would call ConvertCoordinate twice with two different window or pixel z coordinates. For an example of how to do this, see the code snippets in the selection section.
Each Visualize segment contains a 4x4 matrix which affects the segment geometry's position, scale, and rotation. A modelling matrix is an attribute, with a default value being the identity matrix. A thorough explanation of how matrices work are beyond the scope of this document, but this section will discuss how matrices affect the Visualize scene graph.
Matrices behave a bit differently than other attributes in that a segment's modelling matrix is concatenated (multiplied) with its parent segment's matrix. This lends itself to manipulating a 3D hierarchy, which might involve animation or complex transforms. Since the level of a segment in the tree defines the order in which a matrix will be applied in the list of matrices, it is important to set the desired transform at the correct location. Since modelling matrices behave like other segment attributes, all objects in a segment will be affected by the local modelling transform. Therefore, if you need to transform specific objects within a segment you will need to move those objects into another segment to apply the transform.
Like other settings, matrices in Visualize have an associated kit, the HPS::MatrixKit. When specifying rotation parameters to the matrix controls, these values are specified in degrees.
The details for these functions can be found in the reference manual. The solar system is a good hierarchy to use for demonstrating how matrices accumulate to form an accurate rotation. The segment hierarchy for the solar system might look like the one below:
The letters under each name indicate a matrix. For example, the Milky Way galaxy contributes its matrix, G, to the Sun. The Sun then multiplies it by its own matrix, S, to get the matrix GS. Following down the tree, we can end up at Phobos, a moon of Mars, with the matrix GSMP. If all bodies in space could be said to have a matrix which locates them in space, you could say that Phobos is located in the universe by combining the matrices of the galaxy, the Sun, Mars, and its own matrix.
These matrices could be rotation or translation matrices - or a combination of both. For example, the Earth matrix E is likely a combination of the rotation, or tilt, on its axis, a translation from the Sun representing its orbital distance, and another rotation which indicates its progress along its yearly orbit. Applied to Visualize, the point is that matrices accumulate down the tree and your segment structure should be organized in a way that makes sense in 3D space.
Note that unsetting a matrix is not a trivial task. If you need a completely different matrix that is not relative to the parent segment's matrix, you should consider moving the segment to a place in the hierarchy that has a related matrix. Unsetting a matrix on a local segment does not erase the effects of the matrices inherited from above. If that were your goal, you would have to show the net modelling matrix along a draw path (from the segment to a window), then invert the result and apply it to the local segment. Note that there may be multiple paths to a window from your segment, so this is not feasible in the general case.
Remember, the order of these transforms is important, as matrix manipulation is generally not commutative.